Dr.Rupa Guha Nandi

Effect of Co-inoculating Gum Liquid Inoculums of Rhizobium  japonicum and Azotobacter chroococcum on  Grain  yield  of Glycine  max  and  molecular study of nif  gene.”

Minor Research Project
Funded by U.G.C.
F.No.:MS-23/102054/15-16/CRO/General
2016 - 2018

 

1. Summary

India is mostly depend upon the agricultural production. Need for more intensive and economic agricultural production and to full fill the apitite of the growing population led to indiscriminate use of high doses of chemical fertilizers, pesticides etc.,  use of these chemicals not only alter the eco-system but also claim death to many lives every year due to their hazardous nature.
Biofertilizers are defined as preparations containing living cells or viable cells of efficient strains of microorganisms that help crop plants uptake of nutrients by their interactions in the rhizosphere when applied through seed or soil. They accelerate certain microbial processes in the soil which augment the extent of availability of nutrients in a form easily assimilated by plants. In arid and semi-arid area where the moisture is limiting factor there is no chance or sometime less chances of giving top dressing of fertilizers. In such situation biofertilizers are the cheap source to maintain fertility as well as soil moisture.
The biofertilizer technology is basically a microbial technology. In the initial years government subsidized the biofertilizers  so that small and marginal farmers could easily be adopting it. The government  also encourage the private firms and research institutes to come together, cooperate and promote training and extension activity at farm level for farmers.
There is great need to increase farm production to overcome the requirement of food for increasing population without damaging the environment. The more use of chemical fertilizers are harmful to living soil and therefore the use of biofertilizers and are required which improve the soil fertility without any harmful effect to the soil.
Comparative    studies    indicate    that    viable    counts    are    more    in    liquid    medium    than    in    lignite    carrier. Liquid    bio-fertilizer    formulation    could    be    considered    as    one    potential    strategy    for    improving    the    shelf-life    of    bio-fertilizer.  Further,    solid    carrier    based    bio-fertilizers    are    less    thermo-tolerant    where  as    liquid    formulations    can    tolerate    the    temperature    as    high    as    50°C  . Hence,    improved    shelf-life    could    be    achieved    by    the    application    of    a    liquid    bio-fertilizer    formulation.    Process    cost    of    liquid    bio-fertilizer    is    significantly    higher    than    a    solid    formulation.    Thus,    successful    commercialization    of    less    expensive    liquid    bio-fertilizer    is    a    challenge    and    shelf-life    of    such    products    is    still    a    concern.
The  outcome  of  this  study  suggests  that in production of biofertilizer  screening  of  high  temperature  tolerant  strain  of  Rhizobium  japonicum  and Azotobacter chroococcum in  gums  as  carrier  in  compared  to  lignite  could    be  key  to  sustain  legume  productivity  in  tropical  regions  of  our  country. 


2. Objectives
Looking to above facts a study entitled, “Effect of co-inoculating gum liquid inoculums of Rhizobium  japonicum and Azotobacter chroococcum on  Grain  yield  of Glycine  max  and  molecular study of nif  gene.” was conducted with following objectives:-

  1. New    approach    to use different    types    of    gums  as  carrier  of  biofertilizer rather  than using lignite.   
  2. Improved shelf-life by  the   application    of    liquid    bio-fertilizer    formulation. 
  3. Dual inoculation with gums as carrier resulted in improved performance of seed control.
  4. To increase the yield of soybean.
  5. Protect the environment from chemical pollutants .

3. Suggestions for the further research
The present study throw light on the new areas, where further research work needs to be carried:
Process    cost    of    liquid    bio-fertilizer    is    significantly    higher    than    a    solid    formulation.    Thus,    successful    commercialization    of    less    expensive    liquid    bio-fertilizer    is    a    challenge    .
Dual inoculation of Rhizobium japonicum + Azotobacter chroococcum was found to be beneficial over chemical fertilizers and would be recommended as biological fertilizer for soybean production in M.P. In addition, for other parts of the country, similar experiments should be carried out to increase the yield of soybean, protect the environment from chemical pollutants   
The isolation and cloning of the plasmids in this study are in progress, and the characterization of nif  gene and other genes present should produce valuable information about these symbionts.