**National Assessment & Accreditation Council - 2015**

Dr. Smita Nair

**Study of Fixed point theorem in G metric space and Dislocated metric space**

Minor Research Project

Funded by U.G.C.

F. No. MS 21/ 102054/ xii/14-15 CRO

2015 - 2017

** Summary**

One of the significant works in field of mathematics that has been proven to be an asset for mathematicians worldwide, busy in solving problems of various kinds is ** fixed point theory**. The theory of fixed point is one of the most powerful tools of modern mathematics. Fixed point theory is a beautiful mixture of analysis, topology & geometry. It concerns itself with very simple and basic mathematical settings. Fixed point theory has always been exciting in itself and its applications in new areas because of its interdisciplinary approach.

A point is often called ** fixed point **when it remains invariant, irrespective of the type of transformation it undergoes. A point x of a space X is called a fixed point of a function

Thus it is obvious that the presence or absence of fixed point is an intrinsic property of function. However many necessary and/or sufficient conditions for the existence of such points involves a mixture of algebraic order theoretic or topological properties of mapping or its domain and range.

Many mathematical problems, originating from various branches of mathematics, can be equivalently formulated as fixed point problems. Fixed point theorems provide sufficient conditions under which there exists a fixed point for a given function, and thus allow us to guarantee the existence of a solution of the original problem. The fixed point theory has been applied to show the existence and uniqueness of the solution of differential equation, integral equation. Because of the wide variety of uses, fixed point theorems are of great interest many disciplines such as mathematics, engineering, physics, economics, game theory, biology and chemistry etc.

The origin of fixed point theory lies in the method of successive approximations used for proving existence of solutions of differential equation which formally started in the beginning of twentieth century as an important part of analysis. If one looks into the annals of history the study of fixed point theory began in 1912 with a theorem given by famous Dutch mathematician L. E. Y. Brouwer (1881-1966). It is one of most famous and important theorem on the topological fixed point property. It can be formulated as ”*The closed unit ball **Bn *ϵ R**n has the topological fixed point property.”**He also proved the fixed point theorems for a square, a sphere and their n-dimensional counterparts. Brouwer’s theorem has many applications in analysis, differential equation and generally in proving all kinds of so-called existence theorems for many types of equations. Its discovery had a tremendous influence in the development of several branches of mathematics, especially algebraic topology. But the abstraction of this classical theory is the pioneering work of the great polish mathematician Stefan Banach published in 1922 which provides a constructive method to find the fixed points of a map. This theorem foreshadowed the work of Brower. Banach contraction principle (BCP) states that “A

Beginning with simple contractive type mapping, the interest now shifted to newer type of mappings and existence of their fixed point. In 1976Jungck obtained an important generalisation of (BCP) in the form of common fixed point theorem for commuting pair of maps. Sessa introduced the concept of weakly commuting maps and proved common fixed point theorem for weakly commuting mappings. According to Sessa “

This concept was further improved and generalized by Jungck with the notion of weakly compatible mappings. He defined it as,

The concept of dislocated metric space was introduced by P. Hitzler in which the self distance of points necessarily need not to be zero. They also generalized famous Banach’s contraction principle in dislocated metric space. Dislocated metric space play a vital rule in topology, logical programming and electronic engineering. Dislocated metric space is defined as

In 2003 Mustafa and Sims [58] proved that most of the claims concerning the topological properties of D metric were incorrect. In order to repair these drawbacks they gave a more appropriate notion of generalized metric called G metric. Mustafa provided many examples of G metric spaces in [58] and developed some of their properties. He proved that G metric spaces are provided with a Hausdroff topology which allows us to consider among other topological notions, convergent sequence, limits, Cauchy sequence, continuous mappings, completeness and compactness. “

In this project we present some theorems based on finding fixed points for mappings in G metric and dislocated metric space. We have proved six theorems which are extension and generalisation of the results that have already been proved in metric and 2 metric spaces. The first theorem is based on concept of weakly compatible mappings. The theorem is extension of the results proved in 2 metric space. It makes use of two self mappings defined on complete G metric space and satisfying the compatibility conditions. The second result consist of finding common fixed point for six self maps defined on complete G metric space. The mapping used satisfy weak compatibility conditions. The third and fourth theorem proved uses the concept of compatibility for finding fixed point for a pair of self maps satisfying rational inequality. The fifth theorem is generalization of the common fixed theorem of Jain and Bajaj in dislocated metric space using the concept of intimate mappings . The sixth theorem uses chatterjia type contraction mapping .

Executive Summary

- Dr. Neena Arora
- Dr. Harsha Chaturvedi
- Dr. Geeta Gupta
- Dr. Smita Nair
- Ms. Girjesh Chouhan
- Dr. Purnima Joshi
- Dr. Shampa Malhotra
- Dr. Archana Srivastava
- Dr. Shriji Seth
- Dr. Renu Shrivastava
- Dr. Rupa G. Nandi

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